1.6. The BTX Server

Next in our boot sequence is the BTX Server. Let us quickly remember how we got here:

Before studying the BTX Server in detail, let us further review how the single, all-in-one boot file is created. The way boot is built is defined in its Makefile (/usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2/Makefile). Let us look at the rule that creates the boot file:

Figure 1.20. sys/boot/i386/boot2/Makefile
      boot: boot1 boot2
	cat boot1 boot2 > boot

This tells us that boot1 and boot2 are needed, and the rule simply concatenates them to produce a single file called boot. The rules for creating boot1 are also quite simple:

Figure 1.21. sys/boot/i386/boot2/Makefile
      boot1: boot1.out
	objcopy -S -O binary boot1.out boot1

      boot1.out: boot1.o
	ld -e start -Ttext 0x7c00 -o boot1.out boot1.o

To apply the rule for creating boot1, boot1.out must be resolved. This, in turn, depends on the existence of boot1.o. This last file is simply the result of assembling our familiar boot1.S, without linking. Now, the rule for creating boot1.out is applied. This tells us that boot1.o should be linked with start as its entry point, and starting at address 0x7c00. Finally, boot1 is created from boot1.out applying the appropriate rule. This rule is the objcopy command applied to boot1.out. Note the flags passed to objcopy: -S tells it to strip all relocation and symbolic information; -O binary indicates the output format, that is, a simple, unformatted binary file.

Having boot1, let us take a look at how boot2 is constructed:

Figure 1.22. sys/boot/i386/boot2/Makefile
      boot2: boot2.ld
	@set -- `ls -l boot2.ld`; x=$$((7680-$$5)); \
	    echo "$$x bytes available"; test $$x -ge 0
	dd if=boot2.ld of=boot2 obs=7680 conv=osync

      boot2.ld: boot2.ldr boot2.bin ../btx/btx/btx
	btxld -v -E 0x2000 -f bin -b ../btx/btx/btx -l boot2.ldr \
	    -o boot2.ld -P 1 boot2.bin

	dd if=/dev/zero of=boot2.ldr bs=512 count=1

      boot2.bin: boot2.out
	objcopy -S -O binary boot2.out boot2.bin

      boot2.out: ../btx/lib/crt0.o boot2.o sio.o
	ld -Ttext 0x2000 -o boot2.out

      boot2.o: boot2.s
	${CC} ${ACFLAGS} -c boot2.s

      boot2.s: boot2.c boot2.h ${.CURDIR}/../../common/ufsread.c
	${CC} ${CFLAGS} -S -o boot2.s.tmp ${.CURDIR}/boot2.c
	sed -e '/align/d' -e '/nop/d' "MISSING" boot2.s.tmp > boot2.s
	rm -f boot2.s.tmp

      boot2.h: boot1.out
	${NM} -t d ${.ALLSRC} | awk '/([0-9])+ T xread/ \
	    { x = $$1 - ORG1; \
	    printf("#define XREADORG %#x\n", REL1 + x) }' \
	    ORG1=`printf "%d" ${ORG1}` \
	    REL1=`printf "%d" ${REL1}` > ${.TARGET}

The mechanism for building boot2 is far more elaborate. Let us point out the most relevant facts. The dependency list is as follows:

Figure 1.23. sys/boot/i386/boot2/Makefile
      boot2: boot2.ld
      boot2.ld: boot2.ldr boot2.bin ${BTXDIR}/btx/btx
      boot2.bin: boot2.out
      boot2.out: ${BTXDIR}/lib/crt0.o boot2.o sio.o
      boot2.o: boot2.s
      boot2.s: boot2.c boot2.h ${.CURDIR}/../../common/ufsread.c
      boot2.h: boot1.out

Note that initially there is no header file boot2.h, but its creation depends on boot1.out, which we already have. The rule for its creation is a bit terse, but the important thing is that the output, boot2.h, is something like this:

Figure 1.24. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot2.h
#define XREADORG 0x725

Recall that boot1 was relocated (i.e., copied from 0x7c00 to 0x700). This relocation will now make sense, because as we will see, the BTX server reclaims some memory, including the space where boot1 was originally loaded. However, the BTX server needs access to boot1's xread function; this function, according to the output of boot2.h, is at location 0x725. Indeed, the BTX server uses the xread function from boot1's relocated code. This function is now accessible from within the boot2 client.

We next build boot2.s from files boot2.h, boot2.c and /usr/src/sys/boot/common/ufsread.c. The rule for this is to compile the code in boot2.c (which includes boot2.h and ufsread.c) into assembly code. Having boot2.s, the next rule assembles boot2.s, creating the object file boot2.o. The next rule directs the linker to link various files (crt0.o, boot2.o and sio.o). Note that the output file, boot2.out, is linked to execute at address 0x2000. Recall that boot2 will be executed in user mode, within a special user segment set up by the BTX server. This segment starts at 0xa000. Also, remember that the boot2 portion of boot was copied to address 0xc000, that is, offset 0x2000 from the start of the user segment, so boot2 will work properly when we transfer control to it. Next, boot2.bin is created from boot2.out by stripping its symbols and format information; boot2.bin is a raw binary. Now, note that a file boot2.ldr is created as a 512-byte file full of zeros. This space is reserved for the bsdlabel.

Now that we have files boot1, boot2.bin and boot2.ldr, only the BTX server is missing before creating the all-in-one boot file. The BTX server is located in /usr/src/sys/boot/i386/btx/btx; it has its own Makefile with its own set of rules for building. The important thing to notice is that it is also compiled as a raw binary, and that it is linked to execute at address 0x9000. The details can be found in /usr/src/sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/Makefile.

Having the files that comprise the boot program, the final step is to merge them. This is done by a special program called btxld (source located in /usr/src/usr.sbin/btxld). Some arguments to this program include the name of the output file (boot), its entry point (0x2000) and its file format (raw binary). The various files are finally merged by this utility into the file boot, which consists of boot1, boot2, the bsdlabel and the BTX server. This file, which takes exactly 16 sectors, or 8192 bytes, is what is actually written to the beginning of the FreeBSD slice during installation. Let us now proceed to study the BTX server program.

The BTX server prepares a simple environment and switches from 16-bit real mode to 32-bit protected mode, right before passing control to the client. This includes initializing and updating the following data structures:

Let us now start studying the actual implementation. Recall that boot1 made a jump to address 0x9010, the BTX server's entry point. Before studying program execution there, note that the BTX server has a special header at address range 0x9000-0x900f, right before its entry point. This header is defined as follows:

Figure 1.25. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
start:						# Start of code
 * BTX header.
btx_hdr:	.byte 0xeb			# Machine ID
		.byte 0xe			# Header size
		.ascii "BTX"			# Magic
		.byte 0x1			# Major version
		.byte 0x2			# Minor version
		.byte BTX_FLAGS			# Flags
		.word PAG_CNT-MEM_ORG>>0xc	# Paging control
		.word break-start		# Text size
		.long 0x0			# Entry address

Note the first two bytes are 0xeb and 0xe. In the IA-32 architecture, these two bytes are interpreted as a relative jump past the header into the entry point, so in theory, boot1 could jump here (address 0x9000) instead of address 0x9010. Note that the last field in the BTX header is a pointer to the client's (boot2) entry point. This field is patched at link time.

Immediately following the header is the BTX server's entry point:

Figure 1.26. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Initialization routine.
init:		cli				# Disable interrupts
		xor %ax,%ax			# Zero/segment
		mov %ax,%ss			# Set up
		mov $0x1800,%sp		#  stack
		mov %ax,%es			# Address
		mov %ax,%ds			#  data
		pushl $0x2			# Clear
		popfl				#  flags

This code disables interrupts, sets up a working stack (starting at address 0x1800) and clears the flags in the EFLAGS register. Note that the popfl instruction pops out a doubleword (4 bytes) from the stack and places it in the EFLAGS register. As the value actually popped is 2, the EFLAGS register is effectively cleared (IA-32 requires that bit 2 of the EFLAGS register always be 1).

Our next code block clears (sets to 0) the memory range 0x5e00-0x8fff. This range is where the various data structures will be created:

Figure 1.27. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Initialize memory.
		mov $0x5e00,%di		# Memory to initialize
		mov $(0x9000-0x5e00)/2,%cx	# Words to zero
		rep				# Zero-fill
		stosw				#  memory

Recall that boot1 was originally loaded to address 0x7c00, so, with this memory initialization, that copy effectively disappeared. However, also recall that boot1 was relocated to 0x700, so that copy is still in memory, and the BTX server will make use of it.

Next, the real-mode IVT (Interrupt Vector Table is updated. The IVT is an array of segment/offset pairs for exception and interrupt handlers. The BIOS normally maps hardware interrupts to interrupt vectors 0x8 to 0xf and 0x70 to 0x77 but, as will be seen, the 8259A Programmable Interrupt Controller, the chip controlling the actual mapping of hardware interrupts to interrupt vectors, is programmed to remap these interrupt vectors from 0x8-0xf to 0x20-0x27 and from 0x70-0x77 to 0x28-0x2f. Thus, interrupt handlers are provided for interrupt vectors 0x20-0x2f. The reason the BIOS-provided handlers are not used directly is because they work in 16-bit real mode, but not 32-bit protected mode. Processor mode will be switched to 32-bit protected mode shortly. However, the BTX server sets up a mechanism to effectively use the handlers provided by the BIOS:

Figure 1.28. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Update real mode IDT for reflecting hardware interrupts.
		mov $intr20,%bx			# Address first handler
		mov $0x10,%cx			# Number of handlers
		mov $0x20*4,%di			# First real mode IDT entry
init.0:		mov %bx,(%di)			# Store IP
		inc %di				# Address next
		inc %di				#  entry
		stosw				# Store CS
		add $4,%bx			# Next handler
		loop init.0			# Next IRQ

The next block creates the IDT (Interrupt Descriptor Table). The IDT is analogous, in protected mode, to the IVT in real mode. That is, the IDT describes the various exception and interrupt handlers used when the processor is executing in protected mode. In essence, it also consists of an array of segment/offset pairs, although the structure is somewhat more complex, because segments in protected mode are different than in real mode, and various protection mechanisms apply:

Figure 1.29. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Create IDT.
		mov $0x5e00,%di			# IDT's address
		mov $idtctl,%si			# Control string
init.1:		lodsb				# Get entry
		cbw				#  count
		xchg %ax,%cx			#  as word
		jcxz init.4			# If done
		lodsb				# Get segment
		xchg %ax,%dx			#  P:DPL:type
		lodsw				# Get control
		xchg %ax,%bx			#  set
		lodsw				# Get handler offset
		mov $SEL_SCODE,%dh		# Segment selector
init.2:		shr %bx				# Handle this int?
		jnc init.3			# No
		mov %ax,(%di)			# Set handler offset
		mov %dh,0x2(%di)		#  and selector
		mov %dl,0x5(%di)		# Set P:DPL:type
		add $0x4,%ax			# Next handler
init.3:		lea 0x8(%di),%di		# Next entry
		loop init.2			# Till set done
		jmp init.1			# Continue

Each entry in the IDT is 8 bytes long. Besides the segment/offset information, they also describe the segment type, privilege level, and whether the segment is present in memory or not. The construction is such that interrupt vectors from 0 to 0xf (exceptions) are handled by function intx00; vector 0x10 (also an exception) is handled by intx10; hardware interrupts, which are later configured to start at interrupt vector 0x20 all the way to interrupt vector 0x2f, are handled by function intx20. Lastly, interrupt vector 0x30, which is used for system calls, is handled by intx30, and vectors 0x31 and 0x32 are handled by intx31. It must be noted that only descriptors for interrupt vectors 0x30, 0x31 and 0x32 are given privilege level 3, the same privilege level as the boot2 client, which means the client can execute a software-generated interrupt to this vectors through the int instruction without failing (this is the way boot2 use the services provided by the BTX server). Also, note that only software-generated interrupts are protected from code executing in lesser privilege levels. Hardware-generated interrupts and processor-generated exceptions are always handled adequately, regardless of the actual privileges involved.

The next step is to initialize the TSS (Task-State Segment). The TSS is a hardware feature that helps the operating system or executive software implement multitasking functionality through process abstraction. The IA-32 architecture demands the creation and use of at least one TSS if multitasking facilities are used or different privilege levels are defined. Since the boot2 client is executed in privilege level 3, but the BTX server runs in privilege level 0, a TSS must be defined:

Figure 1.30. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Initialize TSS.
init.4:		movb $_ESP0H,TSS_ESP0+1(%di)	# Set ESP0
		movb $SEL_SDATA,TSS_SS0(%di)	# Set SS0
		movb $_TSSIO,TSS_MAP(%di)	# Set I/O bit map base

Note that a value is given for the Privilege Level 0 stack pointer and stack segment in the TSS. This is needed because, if an interrupt or exception is received while executing boot2 in Privilege Level 3, a change to Privilege Level 0 is automatically performed by the processor, so a new working stack is needed. Finally, the I/O Map Base Address field of the TSS is given a value, which is a 16-bit offset from the beginning of the TSS to the I/O Permission Bitmap and the Interrupt Redirection Bitmap.

After the IDT and TSS are created, the processor is ready to switch to protected mode. This is done in the next block:

Figure 1.31. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Bring up the system.
		mov $0x2820,%bx			# Set protected mode
		callw setpic			#  IRQ offsets
		lidt idtdesc			# Set IDT
		lgdt gdtdesc			# Set GDT
		mov %cr0,%eax			# Switch to protected
		inc %ax				#  mode
		mov %eax,%cr0			#
		ljmp $SEL_SCODE,$init.8		# To 32-bit code
init.8:		xorl %ecx,%ecx			# Zero
		movb $SEL_SDATA,%cl		# To 32-bit
		movw %cx,%ss			#  stack

First, a call is made to setpic to program the 8259A PIC (Programmable Interrupt Controller). This chip is connected to multiple hardware interrupt sources. Upon receiving an interrupt from a device, it signals the processor with the appropriate interrupt vector. This can be customized so that specific interrupts are associated with specific interrupt vectors, as explained before. Next, the IDTR (Interrupt Descriptor Table Register) and GDTR (Global Descriptor Table Register) are loaded with the instructions lidt and lgdt, respectively. These registers are loaded with the base address and limit address for the IDT and GDT. The following three instructions set the Protection Enable (PE) bit of the %cr0 register. This effectively switches the processor to 32-bit protected mode. Next, a long jump is made to init.8 using segment selector SEL_SCODE, which selects the Supervisor Code Segment. The processor is effectively executing in CPL 0, the most privileged level, after this jump. Finally, the Supervisor Data Segment is selected for the stack by assigning the segment selector SEL_SDATA to the %ss register. This data segment also has a privilege level of 0.

Our last code block is responsible for loading the TR (Task Register) with the segment selector for the TSS we created earlier, and setting the User Mode environment before passing execution control to the boot2 client.

Figure 1.32. sys/boot/i386/btx/btx/btx.S
 * Launch user task.
		movb $SEL_TSS,%cl		# Set task
		ltr %cx				#  register
		movl $0xa000,%edx		# User base address
		movzwl %ss:BDA_MEM,%eax		# Get free memory
		shll $0xa,%eax			# To bytes
		subl $ARGSPACE,%eax		# Less arg space
		subl %edx,%eax			# Less base
		movb $SEL_UDATA,%cl		# User data selector
		pushl %ecx			# Set SS
		pushl %eax			# Set ESP
		push $0x202			# Set flags (IF set)
		push $SEL_UCODE			# Set CS
		pushl btx_hdr+0xc		# Set EIP
		pushl %ecx			# Set GS
		pushl %ecx			# Set FS
		pushl %ecx			# Set DS
		pushl %ecx			# Set ES
		pushl %edx			# Set EAX
		movb $0x7,%cl			# Set remaining
init.9:		push $0x0			#  general
		loop init.9			#  registers
		popa				#  and initialize
		popl %es			# Initialize
		popl %ds			#  user
		popl %fs			#  segment
		popl %gs			#  registers
		iret				# To user mode

Note that the client's environment include a stack segment selector and stack pointer (registers %ss and %esp). Indeed, once the TR is loaded with the appropriate stack segment selector (instruction ltr), the stack pointer is calculated and pushed onto the stack along with the stack's segment selector. Next, the value 0x202 is pushed onto the stack; it is the value that the EFLAGS will get when control is passed to the client. Also, the User Mode code segment selector and the client's entry point are pushed. Recall that this entry point is patched in the BTX header at link time. Finally, segment selectors (stored in register %ecx) for the segment registers %gs, %fs, %ds and %es are pushed onto the stack, along with the value at %edx (0xa000). Keep in mind the various values that have been pushed onto the stack (they will be popped out shortly). Next, values for the remaining general purpose registers are also pushed onto the stack (note the loop that pushes the value 0 seven times). Now, values will be started to be popped out of the stack. First, the popa instruction pops out of the stack the latest seven values pushed. They are stored in the general purpose registers in order %edi, %esi, %ebp, %ebx, %edx, %ecx, %eax. Then, the various segment selectors pushed are popped into the various segment registers. Five values still remain on the stack. They are popped when the iret instruction is executed. This instruction first pops the value that was pushed from the BTX header. This value is a pointer to boot2's entry point. It is placed in the register %eip, the instruction pointer register. Next, the segment selector for the User Code Segment is popped and copied to register %cs. Remember that this segment's privilege level is 3, the least privileged level. This means that we must provide values for the stack of this privilege level. This is why the processor, besides further popping the value for the EFLAGS register, does two more pops out of the stack. These values go to the stack pointer (%esp) and the stack segment (%ss). Now, execution continues at boot0's entry point.

It is important to note how the User Code Segment is defined. This segment's base address is set to 0xa000. This means that code memory addresses are relative to address 0xa000; if code being executed is fetched from address 0x2000, the actual memory addressed is 0xa000+0x2000=0xc000.

[9] Real-mode code and data are necessary when switching back to real mode from protected mode, as suggested by the Intel manuals.

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