8.5. In-line Elements

8.5.1. Emphasizing Information

Two levels of emphasis are available in XHTML, em and strong. em is for a normal level of emphasis and strong indicates stronger emphasis.

em is typically rendered in italic and strong is rendered in bold. This is not always the case, and should not be relied upon. According to best practices, web pages only hold structural and semantical information, and stylesheets are later applied to them. Think of semantics, not formatting, when using these tags.

Example 8.12. em and strong Example


<p><em>This</em> has been emphasized, while
  <strong>this</strong> has been strongly emphasized.</p>

8.5.2. Indicating Fixed-Pitch Text

Content that should be rendered in a fixed pitch (typewriter) typeface is tagged with tt (for teletype).

Example 8.13. tt Example


<p>Many system settings are stored in

8.5.3. Links


Links are also inline elements. Linking to Other Documents on the Web

A link points to the URL of a document on the web. The link is indicated with a, and the href attribute contains the URL of the target document. The content of the element becomes the link, indicated to the user by showing it in a different color or with an underline.

Example 8.14. Using <a href="...">


<p>More information is available at the
  <a href="http://www.&os;.org/">&os; web site</a>.</p>

This link always takes the user to the top of the linked document. Linking to Specific Parts of Documents

To link to a specific point within a document, that document must include an anchor at the desired point. Anchors are included by setting the id attribute of an element to a name. This example creates an anchor by setting the id attribute of a p element.

Example 8.15. Creating an Anchor


<p id="samplepara">This paragraph can be referenced
  in other links with the name <tt>samplepara</tt>.</p>

Links to anchors are similar to plain links, but include a # symbol and the anchor's ID at the end of the URL.

Example 8.16. Linking to a Named Part of a Different Document

The samplepara example is part of a document called foo.html. A link to that specific paragraph in the document is constructed in this example.

<p>More information can be found in the
  <a href="foo.html#samplepara">sample paragraph</a> of

To link to a named anchor within the same document, omit the document's URL, and just use the # symbol followed by the name of the anchor.

Example 8.17. Linking to a Named Part of the Same Document

The samplepara example resides in this document. To link to it:

<p>More information can be found in the
  <a href="#samplepara">sample paragraph</a> of this

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